Attestation committee
Accreditation committee
Expert committee
Dispositions, instructions
Normative acts
Nomenclature
Institutions
Scientific councils
Seminars
Theses
Scientific advisers
Scientists
Doctoral students
Postdoctoral students
CNAA logo

 română | русский | english


Alexandrov Eugeniu


Author: Alexandrov Eugeniu
Degree:doctor habilitat of biology
Speciality: 06.01.05 - Breeding and Seed Production
Year:2017
Scientific consultants: Vasile Botnari
doctor habilitat, associate professor (docent)
Boris Găina
doctor habilitat, professor
Institution: Institute of Genetics, Physiology and Plant Protection of the ASM

Status

Term of presenting of the thesis 8 September, 2017

Abstract

Adobe PDF document1.61 Mb / in romanian

Thesis

CZU 634.848.1:634.849:57.047(478)(043.2)

Adobe PDF document 8.40 Mb / in romanian
260 pages


Keywords

plant breeding, quality, berry, cutting, interspecific genotype, phylloxera, resistance, rhizogenesis, species, grapevine

Summary

The thesis consists of introduction, 5 chapters, 12 conclusions and recommendations, 260 bibliographic references, 7 annexes with 14 tables, 200 text pages with 38 tables and 93 figures. The results of the study were published in 97 scientific papers.

Research area: plant breeding. Purpose of the study.

Scientific substantiation of the methodology of inclusion of distant taxa in the process of breeding of grapevine, the determination of their role in the creation of rhizogenic interspecific genotypes (V. vinifera L. x M. rotundifolia Michx.) with increased resistance to biotic and abiotic factors. Objectives. The assessment of distant taxa, the determination of their functionality and role in the creation of rhizogenic interspecific genotypes. The creation and evaluation of distant combinations, the assessment of agro-biological features of hybrids. The determination of the anatomical characteristics of leaves and roots, organoleptic, biochemical, uvological and oenological features of grapes and derivative products. Karyological description, DNA extraction and sequencing. The assessment of the resistance of interspecific genotypes to phylloxera, micromycetes, drought and low temperatures in winter and testing the capacity of interspecific hybrids to be propagated by cuttings. The expansion of the cultivation range to pedoclimatic zones that are risky for the plantations of V. vinifera species.

Scientific innovation and originality. The elaboration of the methodology of creation of rhizogenic interspecific genotypes V. vinifera L. x M. rotundifolia Michx., with increased resistance to biotic and abiotic environmental factors. The identification of varieties used as donors of outstanding agro-technological characters and their inclusion in the process of grapevine breeding, the creation of new varieties of grapevine with high resistance, stable productivity and high quality grapes. The use of the biological potential of interspecific genotypes will help obtain high quality products, in terms of organic agriculture, which requires reducing the use of synthetic and natural chemicals in pest and disease control.

Basically new results for science and practice. The complex evaluation of grapevine taxa and their functionality, the elaboration of the methodology of creation of rhizogenic interspecific genotypes with high resistance to environmental factors. By interspecific hybridization of V. vinifera x M. rotundifolia, interspecific genotypes of grapevine with high resistance to biotic and abiotic factors have been created in BC3, with obtained valuable characters, which will allow expanding the area of cultivation of own-rooted grapevine to the north and reducing the number of chemical treatments, which will help produce organic products and to protect the environment.

Theoretic significance. The elucidation of the functionality of genetically related taxonomic entities – V. vinifera and M.rotundifolia Michx. with low combinatorial capacity that can be overcome by the involvement of two genetically important factors: parental, as hybridization component – V. vinifera – maternal genitor and M. rotundifolia – paternal genitor, and additive, by backcrosses. As a result, a wide variety of recombinants is obtained, which offers opportunities for a higher efficiency of distant hybridization and the process of developing valuable characteristics. The differentiated classification of interspecific genotypes of grapevine, based on the DNA profiles (SSR markers) and ampelographic criteria reveals the importance of specific interactions genotype x environment for the development of biological and technological characteristics of the hybrid. The multilateral study of different biological and agronomic characteristics, the involvement of genotypes of different ecological and geographical origin of the species V. vinifera. and M. rotundifolia in hybridization and the removal of aneuploid forms during selection determines the stabilization of the interspecific genome (2n = 38), with high genetic potential in terms of resistance to adverse factors and valuable technological features.

Applicative value. The interspecific genotypes V. vinifera L. x M. rotundifolia Michx. can be propagated by cuttings, from own-rooted planting material, which is high-yielding and early-ripening. The expansion of the cultivation range, in areas where the varieties of V. vinifera L. cannot withstand low winter temperatures. According to classical uvological and technological principles, the genotypes BC3-502; BC3-508; BC3-512; BC3-536; BC3-541; BC3-545 etc. can be used as table grapes, and the genotypes BC2-3-1; BC3-580; BC3-595; BC3-640; BC3-660 etc. have a wider range of uses (fresh and industrially processed: juices, distilled beverages etc.). Due to the high resistance to diseases and pests, the created interspecific hybrids will help reduce the expenses on planting material and the use of chemicals in the process of cultivation, thus significantly reducing their negative impact on the environment.

Application of the scientific results. A collection of interspecific hybrids of grapevine has been created on the territory of the IGPPP of the ASM and BG (I) of the ASM and the first plantations of interspecific hybrids have been founded in the northern area of the Republic of Moldova, using ungrafted cuttings, resistant to phylloxera, fungal pathogens, drought and low winter temperatures.